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Gallagher & Dawsey Co., LPA is a unique intellectual property law firm whose practice includes intellectual property counseling and services to businesses and individual inventors, as well as other law firms, regarding patent, trademark, copyright, and trade secret issues.

Our experienced patent attorneys and trademark attorneys provide various intellectual property legal services such as patent searches, patent applications, trademark searches, trademark applications, copyright applications, infringement advice/opinions, and infringement litigation.

Complete our Request Form to receive one of our Free Brochures regarding protecting your intellectual property, or simply relax and receive an intellectual property education by watching the videos in our Online I.P. Video Library.

In today's information based society, the value of patents, trademarks, and copyrights has never been higher. Contact one of our patent lawyers or trademark lawyers to learn more about protecting your inventions, brands, and creative works.

The U.S. patent and trademark attorneys of Gallagher & Dawsey Co. LPA serve clients around the world from our Midwest offices. Our patent and trademark law firm has offices in Columbus, Dayton, and Cincinnati, Ohio.


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imageStudy finds that Non-Practicing Entities (NPE's) Cause Shift in Funding from R&D to Legal Departments: Researchers at Harvard and the University of Texas have published the results of their investigation into the damage NPE's inflict upon innovation. The study showed a direct link between reduced research and development (R&D) spending and revenues lost due to litigation cost. Researchers found that the activities of NPE's have resulted in companies increasing the size of their legal departments with funding that would have gone into R&D, thereby decreasing innovation.

imageSupreme Court Rules that Foreign Works can be Re-Copyrighted. In Golan v. Holder, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Congress did not exceed it’s authority by enacting legislation that removed lapsed foreign works from the public domain. Normally, when a work lapses into the public domain anyone is free to use the work without having to pay for the use. In 1994, in order to bring the United States in line with the Berne Convention, the U.S. Congress passed legislation that re-copyrighted foreign works whose copyright had lapsed in the United States but remained protected abroad. Prior to the passage of the legislation, millions of foreign works had lapsed into the public domain. The plaintiff in Golan claimed that the removal of works from the public domain infringed upon the rights of free speech. Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg gave the opinion of the Court, stating "[n]either congressional practice nor our decisions treat the public domain, in any and all cases, as untouchable by copyright legislation. The First Amendment likewise provides no exceptional solicitude for works in the public domain." The Court declared that the harm caused by removing foreign works from the public domain was less important than the act of re-copyrighting foreign works to align U.S. copyright law with the Berne Convention.

image Fifth Circuit Appeals Court Affirms Sanctions against Plaintiff’s Attorney. The plaintiff, in Mick Haig Productions v. Does 1-670, probably thought that they had an unbeatable scheme for making money. The plaintiff sued 670 anonymous internet users for illegally downloading pornography. Unfortunate for the plaintiff, only the IP-addresses for the users were known. As a result, the plaintiff would use the court system to compel the discovery of the individual’s identities after which, the plaintiff, having no desire to actually litigate, would shame the accused downloaders into settling the case instead of risking public embarrassment. The lower court sanctioned the plaintiff’s attorney for violating Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 26 and 45 by issuing subpoenas to at least two Internet Service Providers even though the plaintiff’s motion to expedite discovery was still pending. The plaintiff’s attorney appealed the sanctions only to have the Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirm the sanctions.

image A Victory for Open Source Programming. In Oracle v. Google, Oracle was claiming that they owned the copyright to the Java Application Programming Interface (API) used by Google used in conjunction with the popular Android operating system. An API is a directory that allows various parts of a programming language to interface one another. Google chose to clone the Java API instead of using Oracle’s API. Oracle claimed that because Google’s API performed the same functionality as Oracle’s API, Google was guilty of copyright infringement. If Oracle’s claims prevailed it would have sent shockwaves through the open source community since such claims would not only be applicable to Java but all open source programming languages and programs derived from them. Fortunately for the open source community and Google, the Court ruled that computer language API’s could not be copyrighted. Judge Alsup stated, "to accept Oracle's claim would be to allow anyone to copyright one version of code to carry out a system of commands and thereby bar all others from writing their own different versions to carry out all or part of the same commands."

image Supreme Court Narrows Patentable Material Based On Laws of Nature: On March 20, 2012, the Supreme Court unanimously reversed the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit holding that Prometheus Laboratories’ patents were directed to non-statutory subject matter pursuant to 35 U.S.C. § 101 and therefore not patent-eligible. The Court held: "If a law of nature is not patentable then neither is a process reciting a law of nature, unless that process has additional features that provide practical assurance that the process is more than a drafting effort designed to monopolize the law of nature itself." A claim in the Prometheus patent applied a law of nature to quantify the relationships between the blood concentration of thiopurine metabolites and a drug’s effectiveness and harmful side effects. The Court found that the relationship between the presence of metabolites and the likelihood that the drug dosage will be effective or induce harmful side-effects actually "sets forth a natural law." As a result, the Court held that the claimed diagnostic method failed to transform an unpatentable law of nature into a patentable application of the law. Thus, whether the invention at issue is a method of medical treatment or a software-based business method the only sure path to patent-eligibility is to incorporate one or more elements, or steps, that are novel and nonobvious.

image Eolas Technologies’ Interactive Internet Claims Don’t Hold Water. In Eolas Technologies Inc. v. Adobe Systems Inc., Eolas was seeking approximately $600 million dollars for infringing the Eolas patents. Some of the companies included in the lawsuit as defendants were Adobe Systems, Amazon, CDW Corp., Google, JC Penney, Staples Inc., Yahoo, and YouTube. Eolas asserted that their patents (USPN 5,838,906 and USPN 7,599,985) covered the interactive aspects of online video, streaming music, image manipulation, and various search features. Unfortunately for Eolas, expert witness Tim Berners-Lee, who is credited for inventing the World Wide Web, presented prior art that predated the Eolas patent applications resulting in a jury finding the patents invalid.

image Supreme Court Rules that Foreign Works can be Re-Copyrighted. In Golan v. Holder, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Congress did not exceed it’s authority by enacting legislation that removed lapsed foreign works from the public domain. Normally, when a work lapses into the public domain anyone is free to use the work without having to pay for the use. In 1994, in order to bring the United States in line with the Berne Convention, the U.S. Congress passed legislation that re-copyrighted foreign works whose copyright had lapsed in the United States but remained protected abroad. Prior to the passage of the legislation, millions of foreign works had lapsed into the public domain. The plaintiff in Golan claimed that the removal of works from the public domain infringed upon the rights of free speech. Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg gave the opinion of the Court, stating "[n]either congressional practice nor our decisions treat the public domain, in any and all cases, as untouchable by copyright legislation. The First Amendment likewise provides no exceptional solicitude for works in the public domain." The Court declared that the harm caused by removing foreign works from the public domain was less important than the act of re-copyrighting foreign works to align U.S. copyright law with the Berne Convention.

image American Invents Act Changes False Patent Marking Rules. The recently passed American Invents Act (AIA) has implemented many changes to the practice of patent law. One of these changes affects the enforcement and penalties associated with producing a product labeled with an expired, invalid or inapplicable patent. Prior to the passage of the AIA, a party that discovered an article marked with an expired, invalid or inapplicable patent could bring suit against the responsible marker and split the statutory penalty with the government. Under the old law, false marking was subject to a penalty of $500 “for every such offense.” Under the newly passed AIA, individuals can no longer bring suit against a company for falsely marking a product unless they suffered direct competitive injury as a result of the false marking. Further, a company that has suffered a direct competitive injury can only recover “actual damages,” which are generally difficult to prove. Additionally, prior to the AIA passage, marking a product with an expired patent number was a violation of patent law subject to a penalty. Now, the law no longer penalizes a manufacturer for failing to remove expired patent numbers from their products. Therefore, the new law has effectively eliminated the era of false marking vigilantes.

image Much More Already in Effect, with More to Come, in the America Invents Act. The AIA has changed, or will change, many long established laws and procedures in patent prosecution. Some of these include:

  • Effective now, a Small Entity can pay $2,400 ($4,800 for large entities) for expedited examination; with a patent office goal of wire to wire prosecution within 12 months. In the larger picture of the costs of patenting, this may represent a good value for many applicants.

  • Effective September 2012, for the first time, third parties will have an effective way to bring prior art to the attention of Examiners; potentially giving these third parties the means to block competitors’ applications.

  • Effective March, 2013, there will be a wide broadening of the definition of “prior art,” that will make more foreign sources count as patent-disqualifying prior art.

  • Also effective March, 2013, the United States will switch from being a “first to invent” to a “first to file” county, to conform to general world practice. This will greatly change the rules on who is entitled to a patent, and may greatly change traditional practices regarding Provisional Patent Applications and early filing.
Of course, the AIA is much more complex than can be expressed here. Please check with us anytime, and over the course of the next eighteen months, as we see how these changes will affect inventors everywhere.

image Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA) and the War Between the Technology and Entertainment Industries. On October 28, 1998, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) was added to title 17 of the U.S. Code governing copyright. The purpose of the DMCA was to modify copyright law to cover loop holes in the law caused by the advancement of technology, such as the internet. Under the DMCA, internet service providers are provided a safe haven against liability for copyright infringement by their users, but must comply with a take down notice from a copyright holder.

Unfortunately for the entertainment industry, policing the internet for infringing material is costly and time consuming. As such, the entertainment industry has been lobbying Congress to pass the Stop Online Piracy Act (SOPA), which would allow an online service provider’s entire domain of to be seized and shut down for infringing material uploaded by a user. Thereby, shifting the responsibility of policing for copyrighted works to the internet service provider.

In contrast, the technology industry is lobbying against the passage of SOPA. The enactment of SOPA would impose drastic changes on online service providers, and will cause some to shut down. For instance, as SOPA is currently written, the YouTube domain could be seized and shut down if a user posts an unauthorized work. Furthermore, leaders in the technology industry claim that SOPA has the potential of drastically changing the internet as we know it, which will affect search engines, websites, forums, and blogs.

image Copyright Holding Company Righthaven LLC Ordered to Pay $120,000 in Attorney Fees and Court Costs. According the U.S. District Court of Nevada in Righthaven v. Thomas DiBiase, copyright holding company Righthaven LLC tried to shake down and force Thomas DiBiase into a settlement. Thomas DiBiase was running a website that aided in missing body murder cases, and used information found in a story in the Las Vegas Review-Journal. Righthaven claimed ownership of the copyrighted material and threatened to sue DiBiase. Unfortunately for Righthaven, DiBiase decided to not to settle and put up a fight. At trial, DiBiase claimed that the use of the material from the Las Vegas Review-Journal fell under the fair use exemption because the website was non-profit in nature and aided law enforcement. Interesting enough, the judge did not rule on the fair use claims but rather dismissed the case for lack of subject matter jurisdiction. It turns out that Righthaven never owned the copyrights that they claimed ownership in, and did not have a right to seize DiBiase’s website. Furthermore, the judge ruled that Righthaven violated Civil Procedure Rule 11(b) by filing a frivolous lawsuit without merit. As a result, Righthaven was ordered to pay all fees requested by DiBiase, a sum total of approximately $120,000.

image “Exceptional” Case Finding Requires Patent Holding Company Plaintiff to Reimburse Defense Costs: In Eon-Net LP v. Flagstar Bancorp (Fed. Cir. 2011), Eon-Net, a patent holding company, sued Flagstar, claiming that Flagstar violated Eon-Net’s patent. Flagstar’s website gave customers the option of applying for a loan online, while Eon-Net’s patent claimed an "information processing system for inputting information from a document or file on a computer into at least one application program . . .," and specified the limitation "hard copy" over a hundred times. Because Flagstar’s paper-free website was clearly outside of the boundaries of Eon-Net’s patent claims, the court issued a summary judgment for defendant and awarded costs and misconduct sanctions against Eon-Net’s counsel and his law firm. The court found that the lawsuit was sufficiently "exceptional" under 35 U.S.C. § 285 to reject the usual rule that each side pays its own legal expenses, and to justify reimbursement for the defendants for their unwarranted expenses. The court, subsequently upheld on appeal, ordered Eon-Net to pay Flagstar $631,134 in defense expenses and misconduct sanctions against Eon-Net’s lawyers. The Court, faulting Eon-Net’s lack of pre-suit investigation and failure to specify any plausible infringement, reminds patent holders of the need for a careful analysis of allegedly infringing products and the necessity of pleading at least a basically well-documented case of infringement.



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imageMother's Day is right around the corner, so this month the patent attorneys at Gallagher and Dawsey have added content to the Interesting Patents page that Moms (and Dads) may find amusing. First, not all bibs are for babies. The title of this patent pretty much sums up the invention: "Mother's Apron or Bib with Detachable Multicolored Two-Dimensional Infant Toys to Aid Supervised Baby Play." Next, maybe you’re not sure if you want to be a parent; if so, check out the patent titled "Infant Simulation System for Pregnancy Deterrence and Child Care Training" for an invention that will determine if you’re up to the task. Finally, don’t irritate any mom that invents and patents something called the "Discipline Stick."

image Intellectual property lawyer David Dawsey was recently included in the Top Lawyers 2016 List of Columbus CEO Magazine.

image For those who celebrate the Easter holiday, this time of year will likely be filled with Easter baskets and boiled eggs, so this month the IP attorneys at Gallagher and Dawsey have added Easter related content to the Interesting Patents page. First, patented in 1961, this plastic "container" should look very familiar to anyone who's ever cracked open a plastic egg. Next, put away the vinegar-filled coffee mugs and food coloring, this patent for an "egg decorating bag" provides a mess-free method of coloring eggs. Finally, if you enjoy a practical joke, tuck this realistic looking "magic egg invention into an Easter basket with the real eggs.

image Spring is right around the corner and the breezy weather here in Ohio is perfect for kite flying. This month our patent lawyers have updated the Interesting Patents page with some early kite-related patents. First, patented in 1920, this "Aeroplane Kite" resembles the biplanes of that era. Second, in 1933 Henry DeCourcy was granted a patent for his windmill-shaped "Kite" design. Finally, this bird-shaped "Kite" was patented in 1948 and is designed to have flapping wings.

image On December 16th small business patent lawyer David J. Dawsey had the pleasure of being a guest on the nationally syndicated The Small Business Advocate® radio program with Jim Blasingame to discuss contracts and intellectual property, specifically how small businesses must understand the hidden risks. Click here to listen.

image On December 11th intellectual property attorney Michael J. Gallagher was the lead speaker at an Ohio Bar Association CLE presentation regarding "Ethical Issues in Patent and Trademark Practice." Click here to access.

image This month our Columbus IP lawyers have added new "celebrity" content to the Interesting Patents page. First, if you’ve ever watched the old Marx Brothers’ films, you may be surprised to learn that Zeppo is listed as an inventor on a "cardiac pulse-rate monitor" patent. Next, actress Jamie Lee Curtis is the inventor of a patented "infant garment," which is a diaper with a built in storage area for wipes. Finally, Bill Nye is more than the "Science Guy," he’s also the inventor of a patented ballet "toe shoe."

image Once again, our Columbus patent lawyers are providing you with unique holiday gift ideas! We’ve updated the Interesting Patents page with some interesting toys. First, if you know a child who dreams of being a farmer, you might consider getting them the toy disclosed in the patent titled "Toy Milkable Animal Figure." Next, those kids with a darker bent prefer the toy disclosed in this "Bleeding Monster Toy" patent. Finally, those kids who just can’t wait until they’re old enough to hit the slots can test their luck on the toy disclosed in this "Toy Slot Machine" patent.

image Much to the chagrin of turkeys everywhere, the holiday season is upon us! This month our Columbus IP attorneys have updated the Interesting Patents page with some turkey related patents. First, if you need a holiday project for the kids, try making a turkey toy of pine burrs as disclosed in a patent from 1928 titled "Toy Representing a Turkey Gobbler." Next, if Thanksgiving isn’t stressful enough, accomplished chefs may want to try presenting guests with a boneless turkey via the method disclosed in a patent from 1951 titled "Method of Preparing Boned Turkey." Finally, if you plan on hunting for your own holiday bird, and don’t value your life much, you will enjoy a patent titled "Collapsible Hunting Blind," which remarkably resembles an umbrella containing a life like image of a turkey!

image On October 28th intellectual property lawyer Michael J. Gallagher was the lead speaker at an Ohio Bar Association CLE presentation regarding "IP Update for the Corporate Practitioner." Click here to access.

image On October 20th patent attorney David J. Dawsey had the pleasure of being a guest on the nationally syndicated The Small Business Advocate® radio program with Jim Blasingame to discuss proposed patent reform and small businesses. Click here to listen.

image Halloween is right around the corner, so this month our Ohio patent attorneys have updated the Interesting Patents page with some spooky patents. First, you can’t be a Caped Crusader without a cape like the one disclosed in this "Costume Apparatus" patent. Next, if you prefer your costume to be a little more unique, the patent simply titled "Costume" may be for you. Lastly, complete your Halloween décor with the invention disclosed in this "Bubbling Brain Novelty" patent.

image On August 17th IP lawyer David J. Dawsey had the pleasure of being a guest on the nationally syndicated The Small Business Advocate® radio program with Jim Blasingame to discuss anti-patent propaganda. Click here to listen.

image On August 11th patent attorney Michael J. Gallagher was the lead speaker at an Ohio Bar Association CLE presentation regarding the Alice Bank decision and the emerging picture of patent eligible subject matter. Click here to access.

image This month our Columbus IP lawyers have updated the Interesting Patents page with pet-related inventions. First, give Fido a hairdryer-powered fluff treatment after his next bath with the patented "Drying Bag for Pets." Next, the patent titled "Pet Pampers" is a novel way to keep parks and playgrounds from becoming doggy potties. Lastly, keep your pets flea-free with the patented "Pet Door Fluid/Powder Applicator Device."

image IP attorney David Dawsey has assumed the position of Deputy Editor-in-Chief of Landslide® magazine, the flagship publication of the Intellectual Property Law Section of the ABA. Landslide® magazine is a bi-monthly publication that offers news and analysis on patents, trademarks, copyrights and related topics, written by and for an audience of intellectual property lawyers. The magazine covers this rapidly evolving legal specialization through an emphasis that includes business, technology, the arts, legislation and international developments.

image It’s summertime here in Ohio and many people are heading out of town for vacation. This month our Columbus patent lawyers have updated the Interesting Patents page with recreation related patents. You no longer need to struggle with the decision between going camping and going on a cruise! This "Floating Campground" patent discloses a way for you to do it all. Feeling stressed? Can’t get away for a vacation? Turn your daily walk into a massage with the invention disclosed in this "Foot Pump Powered Neck Massaging Device" patent. If traditional resort cities don’t appeal to you, check out this patent directed to a "Man-Made Island Resort Complex with Surface and Underwater Entertainment, Educational and Lodging Facilities."

image Richard Buckminster Fuller was born on July 12, 1895. This month our IP lawyers have updated the Interesting Patents page to honor this great American inventor. Possibly Fuller's most recognizable patent is directed to geodesic dome building construction and will be familiar to anyone who’s visited the Epcot theme park. Next, the object of Fuller’s "Cartography" patent is to provide a sectional map of the world with minimal distortion to boundaries, directions, and distances. Finally, issued in 1940, his patent for a "Prefabricated Bathroom" describes a prefabricated bathroom that could be "carried by hand through a doorway and up a staircase of the average house."

image On May 8th patent lawyer David J. Dawsey had the pleasure of being a guest on the nationally syndicated The Small Business Advocate® radio program with Jim Blasingame to discuss small business funding and IP, and why small businesses should not get their IP education from the Shark Tank television program. Click here to listen.

image In a few weeks, skies across the country will be lighting up with July 4th fireworks. This month our Columbus patent attorneys have updated the Interesting Patents page with fireworks-related patents. First, if you love sparklers then check out this "Sparkler" patent from 1936. Next, the "Shielded Fireworks Holder" patent discloses a device that attempts to make holding Roman candles safe. Finally, the patent for a "Harmless Firework" describes a safe, but loud, noise maker that looks very similar to a potato launcher.

image This month our Columbus IP lawyers have updated the Interesting Patents page with patents for pet lovers. For example, take your bathroom décor to the next level with the toilet design disclosed in the patent titled "Toilet Tank Aquarium." Next, if your pet snake isn’t allowed on your couch, give him his own with the furniture disclosed in the patent titled "Combination Aquarium And Furniture System." Lastly, what better way to memorialize your beloved cat than to seal her cremated remains underwater? The invention found in the patent titled "Underwater, Pet Ashes Memorial Display And Marine Refuge" allows you to do just that.

image The US trademark attorneys at Gallagher & Dawsey Co. LPA have added yet another new article to the IP Newsletter Archive of over 80 intellectual property articles. The new article, Foreign Language Words as Trademarks, explains one of the lesser known rules of trademark registration, namely the so-called "Doctrine of Foreign Equivalents."

image Man has always been fascinated with the sea. The Ohio IP attorneys at Gallagher and Dawsey have added new content to the Weird and Wacky Patents section of the Interesting Patents page that illustrate some of the efforts humankind has made to explore this frontier. First, a patent from 1922 discloses a rather cumbersome looking "Diving Suit" intended to be used in shallow water. Next, one of the most famous seafaring explorers, Jacques Cousteau, was also an inventor. Among his inventions was this "Diving Apparatus" patent. Finally, the bullet shape and fish-like fins of this 1956 patent titled "Swimming and Diving Device" allow you to explore the depths in streamlined style.

imageIntellectual property attorney David Dawsey was recently included in the Top Lawyers 2015 List of Columbus CEO Magazine.

image The Ohio IP attorneys at Gallagher and Dawsey have added new content to the Weird and Wacky Patents section of the Interesting Patents page. First, this "Tapeworm Trap" patent from 1854 claims to remove tapeworms from the stomach without using medicine. Next, the "Improvement in Combined Plow and Gun" patent from 1862 allows a farmer to defend himself while working his fields. Finally the "Combination Toy Dog And Vacuum Cleaner" patent could make your dog’s grooming experience a little more interesting.

image If you grew up watching Saturday morning cartoons, you may be interested in the new content added to our Interesting Patents page. First, the creator of the animated characters Betty Boop and Popeye, among others, was also awarded a patent for a "Method of Producing Moving Picture Cartoons. Another animator, Paul Terry, who founded the famous animation studio Terrytoons, is also the inventor of several patents including the one directed to the "Production of Motion Pictures of the Animated Cartoon Type." Arguably the most famous animation company, Walt Disney Productions, is the owner of many patents, including this one, issued in 1941 for a "Method of Creating Cartoon Effects."

image If you’re one of the many people who make a New Year’s resolution to get in shape, you may be interested in the exercise related content our patent lawyers have added to the Interesting Patents page. First, if you enjoy cycling, patent USPN 1,354,021 directed to an "Apparatus for the Purpose of Providing Public Amusement and Exercise" may be of interest to you and your fellow competitive stationary cyclists. Next, if you prefer to vibrate those problem areas away, you should check out USPN 1,830,380, which issued in 1931, for a "Massage and Exercise Machine". Finally, if you like to work out aggression and get in shape at the same time, you may enjoy the punching bag aspect of the "Exercise Vending Device" invention found in patent USPN 2,012,899.

image Looking for some last minute holiday gift ideas? You’re in luck! The patent attorneys at Gallagher & Dawsey have added some content to our Interesting Patents page that should give you some gift giving inspiration. First, don’t be put off by the rather generic sounding name. The toy that this "Toy and Process of Use" patent is directed to will appeal to the most nostalgic person on your list (especially if they have stairs in their home). Next, the patent for this toy issued in 1961, but it’s just as popular today. Check out the patent directed to the "Toy Building Brick", better known as Lego toy building bricks. Finally, if there’s always that one person at your holiday gathering that tends to annoy the whole group, give them a dose of their own medicine with the "Skin-Irritating Game Machine." They might just take the hint.

imageOn October 17th intellectual property attorney David J. Dawsey had the pleasure of being a guest on the nationally syndicated The Small Business Advocate® radio program with Jim Blasingame to discuss how edgy trademarks are good, while disparaging trademarks are bad (in light of the well publicized Washington Redskins issues), as well as the Supreme Court’s view on patenting of abstract ideas and the impact on small businesses. Click here to listen.

imageThis month the patents attorneys at Gallagher & Dawsey are dedicating some space on our Interesting Patents page to inventors who must have had the best intentions for their children’s well-being and emotional development when designing these baby-related patents. First, if you don’t believe in “helicopter parenting,” this "Baby Patting Machine" patent does all the hard work of patting your baby’s butt while you catch some sleep. Next, some people take their restless babies for a ride in the car to soothe them to sleep, so why not try strapping that crying child on your horse and going for a gallop? The "Infant Bed for Use on Horseback" invention allows you to do just that. Finally, if you’re the type who’s mortified when your family shows your baby pictures, you may need therapy after mom proudly displays your childhood with this "Infant Mannequin" invention.


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